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Israelis and Palestinians - A timeline reveals patterns of violence
by Johan Åström, editor emeritus
1300 B.C. Philistines and Israelite tribes migrate and conquer Canaan.
1000 B.C. Jerusalem conquered by Jews. After the death of David’s son Solomon, the kingdom is split into two: Israel in the north and Judea and Jerusalem in the south.
721 B.C.
Fall of Israel to Assyria
586 B.C. Fall of Judea to Babylon
516 B.C. Rebuilding of the Second Temple under Persian rule
331 B.C. Alexander the Great conquers Persia. Land subject to Egyptian rule after his death, followed by Seleucid Syrian rule.
166 B.C. Revolt of Judah Maccabee
In recent years, confrontations of Palestinians and Israelis have tended to be violent.
Photo courtesy
Click on image for larger view.

61 B.C. Romans conquer Jerusalem
70 A.D. First Jewish revolt. Jewish second temple destroyed by the Romans
133-135 Second Jewish revolt crushed. Judea renamed by the Romans to Palestina.
622 Islam is founded
640 Arabs conquers Jerusalem
1099 Christian Crusaders conquers Jerusalem. Slaughter most of the Jews and Moslem inhabitants
1187 Saladin reconquers Jerusalem
1517 Ottoman Turkish conquest
1799 Napoleon conquers Jaffa
1840 Accusations that Jews kill Christian children to use for the Passover Matzoth
1843 First Zionist writings
1878 First Zionist Settlement
1897 First Zionist Congress in Basle, Switzerland
1917 British promise a “National Home” for the Jews in Palestine
1919 First Palestinian Congress
1920 Arab riots led by Haj Min El Husseini and Aref El Aref in Hebron and Jerusalem
1921 Arab riots in Jaffa against Jewish population
1922 British Mandate for Palastine. Official establishment of Transjordan
1929 Jews set up a dividing schreen at the Wailing Wall to separate men and woment worshippers. Haj Amin El-Husseini deliberately spread rumors that the Jews wanted to build synagogue at the wall. Arab riots in Hebron, Jerusalem, Sfed, Haifa, Motza and elsewhere.
1930 The British proposes to limit Jewish immigration to Palestine
1936-39 Arab Revolt by Haj Amin Al-Husseini. Husseini flees to Iraq and then to Nazi Germany
1937-38 Peel and Woodhead recommend partitioning Palestine into a small Jewish state and a large Arab state.
1939 White Paper limits Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75,000 in total, restricts Jewish land purchases.
1947 Nov 29, UN Partition Resolution (GA 181) – Palestine divided into a Jewish State and an Arab State. The Arab league refuses to recognize the resolution.
Dec 1, 1947 Arab riots in Jerusalem. Atrocities committed by both Jews and Arabs
April 6-8, 1948 Arab blockade of Jerusalem broken temporarily by Nachshon. Adb-El-Quader Al-Husseini is shot to death by the Jews.
April 9, 1948 Deir Yassin Massacre – Jewish extremist groups Irgun and Lehi murder over 100 Palestinian civilians in the Jerusalem village of Der Yassin.
April 13, 1948 Haddassah Convoy Massacre – In retaliation for Der Yassin, Arabs murder Jewish medical personnel and sick patients on their way to the Hadassh hospital
May 14, 1948 Guch Etzion Massacre – Another retaliation for the Der Yassin Massacre, Arabs murder over 50 Jewish defenders at Gush Etzion after they had surrendered
May 15, 1948 The 1948 Israeli War of Independence. Declaration of Israel as the Jewish State. The British leave Palestine. Egypt, Syra, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia declare war on Israel. Egyptian, Syran and Jordanian invasion begin.
Dec 11, 1948 UN Resolution 194 called for ending of fighting and invite refugees back to the region.
April 3, 1949 After the war, Israel gained about 50 percent more land than what was originally given to them in the UN Partition Plan. The war also creates over 780,000 Palestinian refugees. Gaza fell under Egypt ruling. The West Bank is occupied by Jordan.
July, 1951 Assassination of Jordan’s King Abdulla. Rumors was spread that wanted peace with Israel. Grandson Hussein takes his place.
October, 1953 IDF paratrooper unit 101 under Ariel Sharon demolish houses, killing 69 civilians in the Jordanian village of Oibieh as a reprisal for a raid on Tirat Yehuda.
Oct 29, 1956 Suez canal taken by Israeli forces with the backing of French and British troops. United States guarantees right of passage for Israeli shipping through the Straits of Tiran.
1957 Fateh founded. Their aim is to destroy Israel
May, 1964 PLO founded. Their aim is to destroy Israel. The Palestinian National Charter (1968) openly declares annihilation of Israel
May 1967 Egyptian President Gamal Adbel Nasser closes the straits of Tiran. Dismisses the UN peacekeeping forces.
June 5, 1967 The 6-day war:.Israel destroys the Egyptian air force on the ground, conquers and occupies Sinai and Gaza. It siezes the West Bank from Jordan and the Golan Heights from Syria. UN resolution calls for Israel to withdraw.
March,21 1968 Battel of Karameh – Jordanian and Palestinian forces defeat some Israel troops. Israel conducts a massive retaliatory raid on a Jordanian town that had served as a key point for which PLO and Fatah guerilla attacks had been planned and staged.
Sept, 1970 “Black September”- King Hussein of Jordan expel Palestinian guerillas. PLO flee Jordan and establish themselves in Lebanon.
Sept 5, 1972 Black September movement massacres Israeli Olympic team in Munich, Germany. Israeli agents find and terminate most of the assassins.
Oct 6, 1973 Yom Kippur War (October War) is a surprise attack on the Jewish day of atonement. Egypt retakes the Suez canal. Syria reconquered the Golan Heights. A massive US and Soviet support for each side with armor. Israel pushes back the Syrians and threatening to take Damascus. Ariel Sharon crosses the Suez Canal and cuts of the Egyptian Third Army
Oct 22, 1973 UN Security Council Resolution 338 calls for cease fire.
May 15, 1974 PLO gunmen take over a school in northern Israel and kill 25 and wound many others.
1974 Palestinians hijack an Air-France Air but to Entebbe in Uganda. IDF commando units storm the plane and manage to free most of the hostages.
Mar 15, 1978 Israel invades Lebanon after the PLO hijacked a bus on the main Tel-Aviv to Haifa highway. UN resolution 425 of March 19, 1978 calling for withdrawal of Israeli forces – Israel did not fulfill the resolution until May 2000.
Sept 17, 1978 Egypt and Israel sign frameworks for peace in the Middle East and peace between Egypt and Israel.
June 7, 1981 Israel destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor
Oct 6, 1981 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated
June 6, 1982 Israel invades Lebanon
1982 The Lebanese Shi’ite Hizbulla Islamic terror group is founded.
Aug 22, 1982 PLO evacuation of Beirut
Sept 14, 1982 Lebanese President Bashir Jemayeel assassinated by Syrian intelligence.
Sept 16, 1982 Ariel Sharon allows Lebanese Christian Phalange units to enter a Palestinian refugee camp.They massacre between 800-1000 refugees.
Feb 8, 1983 Israeli Kahan commission found Ariel Sharon and others indirectly guilty of allowing the massacre to take place.
April 18, 1983 Hizbulla suicide bomber blows up American Embassy in Beirut. More than 60 people are killed.
Sept 3, 1983 Israel begin partial withdrawal from Lebanon
Oct 23, 1983 Hizbulla suicide bomber destroys the US Marine compound in Beirut killing 241.
Sept 20, 1984 Hizbulla suicide bomber destroys the rebuilt American Embassy in Beirut killing 25.
June 1985 Shimon Peres order withdrawal from most of the occupied Lebanese territories.
Jan. 1985 First Intifadeh – stone throwing Palestinians
Aug. 1988 Hamas publishes Charter calling for destruction of Israel.
Nov 15, 1988 Palestine National Council of the PLO declares a Palestinian state and recognizes the UN resolutions 181 and 242.
May 14, 1989 Israeli Peace Plan calls for negotiating with the Palestinians.
January, 1991 Gulf War. Iraqi missiles fall on Israel. Palestinians support Saddam Hussein.
Oct 30, 1991 Madrid Peace Conference for peace in the Middle East
Sept 13, 1993 Oslo declaration of Principles. Israel and PLO agree to mutual recognition. Yasser Arafat and PLO allowed returning to Gaza. PLO revises charter to remove the destruction of Israel. Israel withdraws seemingly little from occupied areas. Israel does not stop growth of settlements on occupied land and the number of settlers and settlements increases considerably.
May 1994 Yasser Arafat arrives in Gaza; peace between Jordan and Israel
Nov 4, 1995 Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing Israeli fanatics
May 2000 Israel withdraws from Lebanon after years of harassment by Hizbullah guerillas
July 2000 Israeli PM Barak, U.S. President Clinton and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat fail to gsain resolution at Camp David. Israel offers to give back 90 present of occupied land. Arafat leaves the negotiation table in protest.
Sept 28, 2000 Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount, which is holy to Muslims. Violence erupts. Israel kills 15 Israeli Arabs in September/October 2000, and over 500 Palestinians in retaliatory raids thereafter. Palestinians kill 100 Israelis. Violence continues until present time.
Sept 11, 2001 Terror attack on World Trade Center in NYC and the Pentagon. United States “declares” war on terrorism. Israel and Palestine agree to cease-fire but it is not implemented.
Oct 17, 2001 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine assassinates Israeli tourism minister Rehav’am Ze’evi. Israel troops enter Palestinian areas in the West Bank.
Jan 3, 2002 Israel intercepts a boatload of illegal arms sent to the Palestinian Authority. This happens when the US envoy Anthony Zinni arrives to mediate a settlement.
March 2002 Saudi Prince Abdullah presents a peace plan to which Israel would withdraw from the occupied territories in turn for Arab recognition.
April 2002 The PNA Chairman, Arafat surrounded and detained inside his compound in Ramalah. The Palestinians step up the attacks on Israeli soldiers as well as suicide bombings in civilian areas.




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